An official review of refugee reception in the town of Mosfellsbær, just outside of Reykjavík, has revealed that the resettlement of fourteen LGBTQ+ refugees from Uganda in 2018 was cheaper than originally projected, RÚV reports. The municipality reported that the main difficulties it encountered were in trying to secure housing for the incoming residents. Otherwise, the resettlement process is considered to have been a great success.
Mosfellsbær had anticipated that the cost of resettling ten refugees would be ISK 44 million [$352,963; €310,475]. The actual expense, however, was much less: ISK 35 million [$280,810; €247,007]. One reason for the cost being less than expected was that the town had expected to provide interpreting services. All of the arriving refugees spoke English, however, which rendered this service unnecessary.
Learning new systems
In September 2015, Mosfellsbær submitted a statement to the Ministry of Welfare indicating that it would be interested in receiving refugees. Two years later, the town was given the opportunity to resettle a small group of LGBTQ+ refugees from Uganda who had been living in refugee camps in Kenya. This proposal was approved in January 2018 and the group, which consisted of ten adults and four children, arrived in Iceland two months later.
The new residents were initially supported by municipal funds. How much financial assistance each person received depended on a variety of factors, such as the size of the family and the type of residence they were given. At first, benefits were loaded onto electronic bank cards, but as many of the individuals were not familiar with online banking, these were later converted to cash payments. The report notes, however, that it didn’t take long for any of the new residents to get accustomed to the new technologies and before long, they were able to make use of online banking services and phone apps to monitor their bank accounts and access their funds.
The town also assumed the cost of educating the four children and provided all of the new arrivals with bus passes. Once all of the refugees had received their kennitölur (national ID numbers), they were able to apply for housing benefits and additional social support.
While financial matters were quick to sort themselves out, housing logistics proved to be more difficult. Only three individuals had housing ready for them when they arrived in Iceland, or shortly after. That is, two apartments were ready immediately, and one was ready a week later.
Those individuals whose permanent housing was not ready when they arrived were put up in hotels, guesthouses, or Airbnb properties in the interim. In at least one case, only short-term accommodations could be made, which meant that two people had to move several times. This temporary housing shortage resulted not only in inconveniences to the new residents but also a substantial extra expense for the municipality. It also happened that one of the arriving couples broke up shortly after their arrival in Iceland, which meant that an additional apartment needed to be sourced at the last minute.
The new arrivals were eager to secure jobs and soon after their arrival, they were assisted in their search by a specially designated project manager. Later, they received guidance from an advisor with the Directorate of Labour. At the end of the initial adjustment period, nine of the ten adults had some form of paid employment, and three of these individuals had long-term employment contracts. The last of the adults was engaged in volunteer work twice a week.
Learning from experience
In its report about the resettlement process, Mosfellsbær acknowledged that providing housing had indeed been the biggest challenge it faced. It also noted, however, that the expectation that the refugees arriving together would want to make the transition into their new lives in Iceland together, as a group, was unrealistic. As this was not the case, the new arrivals’ social and resettlement education largely occurred on an individual basis.
Overall, Mosfellsbær reported that the community at large had been extremely supportive and that the resettlement process had gone well. On this basis, the Ministry of Welfare has asked the town to receive ten additional LGBTQ+ refugees from Kenya in 2019. Iceland has agreed to offer 75 people asylum this year, both LGBTQ+ individuals who are currently living in Kenya and Syrian refugees who are currently based in Lebanon.
The Ministry of Welfare believes that Mosfellsbær’s previous experience welcoming LGBTQ+ asylum seekers will be a great strength when accepting a second group of LGBTQ+ refugees this year. It is hoped that in so doing, Mosfellsbær will improve upon its reception process and therefore be able to effectively advise and support other Icelandic municipalities in welcoming and resettling refugees in the near future.