Iceland is a North Atlantic island nation located between Greenland and Norway. The country is situated at the juncture of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, and its closest neighbours are Greenland to the west and the Faroe Islands to the southeast. Iceland’s total land area is 103,000 square kilometres, making it the 18th largest island in the world.
Iceland is known for its diverse and dramatic geography, which includes volcanic landscapes, glaciers, hot springs, and geysers. The island is largely composed of a plateau that rises gradually from the coast to an average elevation of 500 meters. This plateau is characterized by volcanic mountains, which are the result of Iceland’s position on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary that runs through the centre of the island.
Iceland’s climate is classified as subarctic, with cool summers and relatively mild winters compared to other areas at similar latitudes. The island’s location on the edge of the Arctic Circle means that it experiences long periods of daylight in the summer, with the sun not setting for several weeks in some parts of the country. Conversely, in winter, Iceland experiences long periods of darkness, with the sun not rising for several weeks in some parts of the country, such as deep valleys.
The climate in Iceland is heavily influenced by the Gulf Stream, which brings warm up to the North Atlantic, and by the country’s high latitude and oceanic setting. As a result, Iceland experiences relatively mild temperatures compared to other areas at similar latitudes, with average temperatures ranging from around 1°C (33°F) in winter to 10°C (50°F) in summer. However, the weather in Iceland can be unpredictable and changeable, and it is not uncommon for the country to experience extreme weather events such as blizzards, heavy rain, and strong winds.